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Front: - noun
[1]a group of people or organizations with a common purpose;
[2]a broad political coalition;
[2]a stated area of activity or operations;
[3]a prominent or leading position in any field of activity;
[4]a way of viewing a situation;
[5]an area where forces are facing one another;
[6]an area where struggle between forces is taking place;
[7]space defended by a social or military force;
[8]the width of territory occupied or defended by a political force;

Praetor, also Pretor:- noun
[1]one who goes before (as in a battle)
[2]one with jurisdiction in disputes
[3]one who convokes meetings
[4]In ancient times a minister of justice, invested with certain legislative powers, especially in regard to the forms or formalities of legal proceedings. Before entering on his functions he published an edict announcing the system adopted by him for the application and interpretation of the laws during his magistracy.

[1] Out of unity comes power
[2] Strength comes from unity

In Swahili, 'Ex Unitate Vires' translates Umoja ni Nguvu.

African Court
The court complements the protective mandate of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights. It has both advisory and contentious jurisdiction over human rights matters in the African Union. As for its sources of law, the court relies on the provisions of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights "and any other relevant human rights instruments ratified by the States concerned."

African Growth and Opportunity Act [AGOA]
US economic-recovery program for sub-Saharan Africa, stressing trade and investment rather than aid. The 'African Growth and Opportunity Act' was meant to extend duty-free treatment to additional products from Africa, and in 1998 established a $150m equity-investment fund and a $500m infrastructure fund. President Clinton signed the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) into law on May 18, 2000 as Title 1 of The Trade and Development Act of 2000. The Act offers tangible incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free markets.

African Solar Stove
Stove that utilizes reflective and heat transfer panels to generate temperatures high enough to boil water and cook food. The technology has numerous variations to suit different needs and is now in common use n many areas of the African Union. The Solar Stove reduces the need to exploit wood as fuel.

Fertilizer and sewage overnutrition. Carried to the sea by rivers and streams, chemical fertilizers act much like sewage, overloading reef areas with nutrients for algae, choking the corals. Herbicides and pesticides are also toxic and they kill corals, in addition to contaminating other ocean creatures.

Dirty Development
Means the process of creating economic infrastructure by destroying the environment and undermining the coherence and stability of of communities. Dirty Development encourages destructive farming and overgrazing, overfishing, pollution and conflict.

Land Clashes
Term used specically to mean violent conflict over land resources in the African Union characterised by intermittent violence between groups of civilians. Land Clashes are a form of conflict that is differentiated from other forms of conflict such as Ethnic Cleasing, Guerilla Warfare, or Conventional Warfare, by its lack of regimentation or lack of the classic structures of a militia or army.

Napalm and Phosphorous
Hazardous chemical components in bombs used by several armed forces in the Afican Union. Napalm and phosphorous bombs were first used in Africa during the occupation of Saharan Republic by troops of Morroco and Mauretania. troops.wi that were dropped on

New Africa Initiative
An economic development plan for Africa adopted by African heads of state in July 2001 targeting debt and AIDS. The NAI was a compromise program that combines the OMEGA and MAP development programs advocated for by Thabo Mbeki and Abdoulaye Wade.

Staff Monitored Program (SMP)
Agreement to implement a wide range of economic and institutional reforms in Angola that could lead to further lending and cooperation with the IMF and World Bank, but it is unclear whether the government will be able to comply with its requirements

Special Initiative for Africa (SIA)
A US led program that aims to "strengthen and harmonize regional mechanisms for advancing peace and conflict resolution, African integration and citizenship and identies." SIA is sponsored by the Ford Foundation.

Inundation of Ancestral Grave Sites
Concerns over the construction of dams and and other industrial projects sometimes revolves around the potential to inundate ancestral graves. The most controversial incident involved the building of dams in Nubia, including the Aswan High dam, that destroyed a particularly important region of historic significance to all Africans on account of the Kushite artifacts and graves.

An African grave is not just the location of the physical remains of a deceased person, it is a focal point for defining identity, social relationships and relationships with the land, as well as being a centre for important religious rituals. The preference for riverine locations is practical. Moreover, riverine areas are also heavily loaded with emotion, as the points where communities congregate, the starting points of the annual cattle migrations and cultivation, the places where people struggled to survive droughts, and the sites of graves of other family members.

Because graves demonstrate a continuity of settlement, they determine ownership of the land, as well as the relationships between different communities in terms of rights and obligations to each other.

Open Market Operations
The operations of purchasing selling short-term valuable papers
conducted by the State Bank in the money market for the purpose of
implementing the national monetary policy.

Required Reserves
The amount of money to be deposited at the African Central Bank by
credit institutions for the purpose of implementation of the national
monetary policy.

Foreign Exchange
Foreign currencies, gold of international standard, various valuable
papers and payment instruments denominated in foreign currencies.

Foreign Exchange Operations
Investments, borrowing, lending, guarantees, purchase, sale and other
transactions with respect to foreign exchange.

Foreign Exchange Rate
The ratio between the value of African currency and the currency of
foreign countries.

International Reserves
The African Union's foreign exchange reserves controlled by the African
banks and the foreign exchange reserves of credit institutions which are
permitted to engage in foreign exchange operations.