See 100,000 BCE to 1 BCE
See 1 CE to 1000 CE
See 1500 CE to 2000 CE
See 2000 CE to Present
CHRONOLOGY [1000 CE to 1500]
999-1063 CE King Bagauda is ruler in the State of Kano, north of the Niger.
1050 CE Up to 50,000 Nubians serve in Fatimid army
1117-1133 Emperor Marari establishes Zagwe Dynasty in the Axum Empire.
1127 AD Saladin (Ayyubids) forces Nubians to withdraw to Upper Egypt; George IV is Nubian King.
1140's AD Christian kingdom of Dotawo (Daw) noted in Nubia
1163 AD Crusaders attack Ayyubids and seek alliance with Nubian Christians.
1171-1250 CE/AD Ayyubid Dynasty in Egypt
1172 Nubian-Crusader alliance against Ayyubids; clashes in Cairo and Delta towns; Turanshah attacks Nubia
1172-1212 Zagwe Dynasty emperor of Axum, Gebra Maskal Lalibela, commissions churches hewn out of sheer rock.
ca. 1200 Rise of the Daju dynasty in Darfur. Northward movement of Dinka, and Nuer populations into Bahr al-Ghazal and Upper Nile
1204 Nubian and Crusader leaders meet in Constantinople
1230-1255 Mari Jata I Emperor of Mali.
1235 Last priest sent to Nubia from Alexandria
1250-1382 Bahri Mamluk Dynasty in Egypt
1260-1277 Forces of Mamluke Sultan Al-Zahir Baybars attack Nubia
1264 Nubians again pay "baqt" tribute, now to Mamlukes
1268 AD Dongola King Dawud pays "baqt" to Mamlukes
1270-1285 Emperor Tasfa Iyasus establishes the Solomonid Dynasty in Axum, and is succeeded by Solomon I. The dynasty lasts 710 years and includes such colourful emperors as Takla George I who was deposed and restored to his throne four times between 1779 to 1800.
1274-1285 Abu Bakr is Emperor of Mali, with one of his capitals at Timbuktu. Abu Bakr is a philosopher and explorer. He sends one expeditions with two thousand ships to the Americas to set up settlements, and abdicates his throne to lead a second expedition with two thousand more ships. Abu Bakr's court has close relations with Granada and Portugal, as well as the rest of Africa.
1275 Dongola King Dawud raids Aswan. King Shakanda ruler in Soba.
1275-1365 Period of warfare between Mamlukes and Nubians
1276 AD Mamluke Egyptians sack Dongola; forced conversion to Islam; King Dawud captured
1289 AD Last Mamluke military campaign against Dongola.
1317 CE Defeat of the last Christian king in Nubia and the first Muslim king Abdullah Barshambu on the throne in Dongola; "baqt" re-established; first mosque is built at Dongola
1324-1326 Mansa Kanku Musa's pilgrimage to Mecca. Mansa Musa's caravan consisted of eight thousand soldiers, courtiers and servants - some say as many as 60,000 - drove 15,000 camels laden with gold, perfume, salt and stores of food in a procession of unrivaled size.
Mansa Musa brought Abu Ishaq, a Muslim poet, lawyer and notary from Granada, back to Mali with him from Mecca.
1350-1386 King Ndahiro I Ruyange founds Nyiginya Dynasty in State of Rwanda
1372 AD Bishop of Faras consecrated by Patriarch in Alexandria
1382-1517 CE Circassian (Burji) Mamluke Dynasty in Egypt
1390-1420Severe and prolonged draught devastes equatorial Africa, causing many lakes across Africa to shrink and in some cases completely dry up. Lake Malawi was so low that people could cross it on foot, and Lake Chad disappeared completely.
1400's Probable time of the replacement of the Daju by the Tunjur Dynasty in Darfur. Luo migrations from the southern Sudan led to creation of Shilluk groups.
1441 CE Start of West European slave raids on African coast. Portuguese sailors led by Antonio Gonzales kidnap 12 black Africans from Cabo Blanco and transport them to Portuguese Prince Henry, who in turn gives them as a gift to Pope Eugenius IV.
1447 By now there are 900 Africans enslaved in Portugal.
c. 1450 Nyasimba Mutota ruler of the Mwanamutapa Empire covering central and Southern Africa.
1453 CE Fall of Roman Empire of the East.
c. 1480-1490 Mukombero Nyahuma is Emperor of Mwanamuatapa Empire.
1490-1494 Changa, a slave son of Mutapa's overthrows the legitimate successor with the help of Arab traders. The son of the rightful heir regains control but the kingdom is split between the Mwene Mutapa at Fura and the Changamire at Zimbabwe.
Jan 2 1492 Al Hambra, capital of Granada the last African state on mainland Europe, surrenders to the joint armies of Isabella and Ferdinand rulers of Castille and Aragon. As a consequence of the fall of Granada, Spain joins Portugal in the capture and sale of black Africans.
1492Historian and traveler Leon Africanus (also known as Hasan al-Wazan), who was raised by a Jewish woman working in his father's household (She taught him Hebrew), migrates with his family to Marakesh, Morocco, as part of the wave of Afro-Spanish refugees following the fall of Grenada. Africanus thereafter converted to Catholicism.
1493 Askiya Mohammad founds Askiya Dynasty of the Songhai Empire.