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AFRICAN CHRONOLOGY - COMMON ERA [1 CE to 1000 CE]
37 CE/AD Apostle Philip encounters eunuch who is an official of the Kandake [Candace - female head of state], ruler of Africa.
40 CE Apostle Mark comes to Alexandria
54-68 CE Roman emperor Nero sends “explorers” to Kush in 61 AD; Plans campaign in 64 AD, but not carried out.
67 CE/AD Josephus the historian deserts from the Judean revolt and joins the Romans. Josephus writes about Africans.
70 AD Writer Pliny describes Kush; Kushite cavalry serving the Romans captures Jerusalem.
100-300 AD Post-Meroitic occupation of Qasr Ibrim
180 AD Church of Pantaenus founded in Alexandria
193-211 AD Born in Leptis in Tripolitania Septimius Severus (described as African by medieval historian Bede) is emperor of the Roman empire. He allowed a Senate in Alexandria. Severus spoke Latin with a Punic accent, and his sister never mastered the Latin language. Punic and Celtic words were allowed on legal documents during his reign, most of the top officials came from Africa or Asia, and he granted Roman citizenship to more provincial towns.
199 AD Septimus severus attempts to repair the "Colossi of Memnon" in Thebes, Egypt.
212 AD In 212 Caracalla son of Septimus Severus succeeds his father and grants citizenship to all free men in the Empire.
238 AD African Legion in North Africa demobilized by Emperor Gordian III.
247-264 AD Patriarch Dionysius seeks Egyptian converts
ca.260-300 Major conversion of Egyptians to Coptic Christianity.
268-297 Another period of Blemmyes (Beja) wars in Sudan and Egypt.
270-275 Roman emperor Aurelian loots Alexandria to strengthen Roman rule there.
284-304 Reign of Diocletian.
297 Withdrawal of Romans from Lower Nubia to Aswan. Persecution of Christians
300 AD First mentioning of Chemistry: "Scientia Chimae", the "Science of Blacks" by Julius Firmicus Maternicus. The word Chemi being the old name for blacks in ancient Egypt.
300 AD Christian population of Egypt reaches one million. By this time, destruction of the Library at Alexandria and the loss of 650,000 papyrus scrolls of ancient science, math, literature, and religion.
312 AD Emperor Constantine accepts Christianity for the Roman church as a result of his victory at Milvian Bridge in the name of Christianity; Rise of Donatist church in Numidia (endorsed martrydom as a creed of this schismatic group)
ca. 340 AD Axumite leader Ezana defeats Beja (Blemmy) Dynasty, destroys Meroe, becomes King and establishes Christianity in Central and East Africa. More fragmentation of African communities as smaller states replace massive empires.
350-550 AD X-Group, Ballana (Lower Nubia), and Tanqasi (Upper Nubia) cultural horizons having a new syncretic blend of Pharaonic, Kushitic, and Christian characteristics; No textual records, but huge grave tumuli suggesting small states with clear social stratification. Era of Blemmyes strength; the development of the Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Mukurra, and Alwa, and their respective churches and settlements.
November 13, 354 AD Aurelius Augustinus is born in Thagaste in the province of Numidia (today Souk Ahras in Algeria). Augustinus (later Saint Agustine) was the son of a pagan father, Patricius, and Berber Christian mother, Monica.
Summer 387 ADMonica, Augustine's mother dies at age 56, of a fever, after sharing a mystical vision with her son.
391 AD Christianity becomes state religion for Egypt. ‘Pagan’ temples defaced. Christian Egypt becomes part of the Eastern Byzantine Empire.
406 AD Activity of the physicians Caelius Aurelianus (Numidia) & Theodorus Pricianus (Africa).
410 AD Description of the areometer by bishop Synesios of Cyrene
411 AD Council of Carthage condemns the Donatist heresy officially
413 AD Augustine of Hippo writes his "De civetate dei" [City of God]. Foundation of historiography.
428 AD Invasion of Africa by the Vandals from Spain, who were Arian Christians. Vandal commander Gainseric becomes king of Numidia.
436 AD Blemmyes attack Egyptian Nile and even Kharga Oasis
430 AD The North African provinces of Mauretania and Numidia are ravaged by Vandals, who rape, torture, and pillage, burning Catholic churches along the way. Catholic bishops and refugees seek refuge in Hippo, which was a fortified city.
August 28, 430 AD Augustine, the Bishop of Hippo, dies after suffering a fever for several days. He had prayed with his frightened flock for the gift of perseverance. The bishop of Hippo stood firm until the end while all his world and life's work were destroyed by the Vandals. Though Hippo was partly burned, the library of Augustine was preserved from destruction. It comprised some 100 books, 240 letters, and more than 500 sermons.
451 AD Effort begins to spread Monophysite Christianity from Egypt, while Egypt is isolated as a result of the Council of Chalcedon (at Constantinople). Effort to resolve differences between Bishop Dioscoros of Alexandria and Pope in Rome. The Council determined that Jesus was a single person with two natures; the Bishop was exiled. Eastern Orthodox insisted that Jesus was of one nature: Monophysite.
452 AD Romans under general Maximinus attack Blemmyes and Nobatia (northern Nubia) to release Roman hostages. Christian missionaries arrive in Nubia.
453 AD Treaty of Philae guarantees right to worship Isis.
476 AD End of Roman Empire in the West
ca. 500 AD Blemmyes still worship Isis at Philae.
514-542 Caleb is emperor in Axum. The empire covers modern Ethiopia, Sudan, northern Uganda, Eritrea, parts of Egypt, Yemen and Arabia.
515 AD Romans pay tribute to Blemmye and Nobatian rulers in exchange for peace.
524 AD Byzantium and Axumite alliance. Blemmyes and Nobatian troops serving in Axumite war in Yemen.
527-565 AD Justinian rules the Eastern Roman of Byzantium. He seeks to reconquer Italy and North Africa
ca.537 AD Nubian King Silko drives out Blemmyes from Nobatia and implies at Kalabsha temple that he is the first Christian king of Nubia. The Isis cult at Philae suppressed by Justinian who officially closes it to ‘pagan’ worship.
543-569 AD First Monophysite Christian kingdoms in Nubia; Missionary Julian given permission by Empress Theodora in Constantinople to evangelize among Nubians.
543 AD Faras established as capital of Christian Nobatia.
ca. 560 Missionary Longinus at Nobatia and Alwa.
ca.569 AD Dongola established as capital of Mukurra after its conversion to Christianity.
579-80 AD Longinus converts Alwa to Monophysite Christianity. Soba is the established capital.
639-640 AD Arab Muslim conquest of Egypt led by Amr ibn al ‘As for Khalifa ‘Omar. This begins the first Muslim contacts with Lower Nubians who are forced to pay tribute in slaves and livestock and promise no aggression against Egypt.
641-2 AD Islamic armies of ‘Amr ibn al`As reach the plain north of Dongola but fail to capture it.
646 Egyptians attack Nubia.
652 AD A "baqt" treaty established between Nubia and Egypt under Abdallah ibn Sa'ad ibn Abi Sahr. Nubia would provide 360 slaves each year and promise no attacks; Egypt would provide 1300 "kanyr" of wine. Old Dongola is captured for a period; conflicts noted between Makuria and Nobatia
661-750 AD Umayyad Dynasty in Egypt. Some Nubians serve as mercenaries in the Islamic armies.
697-707 AD Merger of Nobatia and Mukurra under King Merkurius
705-715 CE Al Walid I of the Umayyad family is Caliph. During Walid's rule the Umayyad empire stretches from Spain to India. It was also al-Walid that coupled islamicization with arabicization. Conversion was not forced on conquered peoples; however, since non-believers had to pay an extra tax and were not technically citizens, many people did convert for religious and non-religious reasons. This created several problems, particularly since Islam was so closely connected with being Arab—being Arab, of course, was more than an ethnic identity, it was a tribal identity based on kinship and descent. As more and more Muslims were non-Arabs, the status of Arabs and their culture became threatened. In particular, large numbers of Coptic-speaking (Egypt) and Persian-speaking Muslims threatened the primacy of the very language that Islam is based on. In part to alleviate that threat, al-Walid instituted Arabic as the only official language of the empire. He decreed that all administration was to be done only in Arabic. It was this move that would cement the primacy of Arabic language and culture in the Islamic world.
710 CE Umayyad armies reach the river Indus.
711 CE African army under Umayyad General Tarik (El Moro) ibn Ziyad occupy Spain in order to relieve Visigoth allies against usurpation of the late King Wittiza's throne by Roderic.
720 AD A "baqt" is recorded between Egyptians and Beja
722 CE Umayyad troops cross the Pyrenees and invade Gothic Gaul (France), seizing several towns.
732 CE Massive African army under the command of the Amazigh (Berber) governor of Spain, Abd arRahman, begins laying waste to large parts of France. Rahman defeats Gothic army under command of Eudes at Aquitaine. Charles Martel counter attacks and Frankish/Gothic army engages Ummayyad army at Tours and Potiers in France in October. The battle lasts 7 days. The Umayyad armies withdraw to Spain after failing to break Martels formation.
740's AD Cyriacus, King of Dongola lays siege to Umayyad capital at Fustat (Cairo).
750-870 AD Abbasid dynasty in Egypt.
755 CE Umayyad occupation of Narbonne in France is lifted after battle with Frankish army.
758 AD Abbasids complain of no "baqt" payments and Blemmyes attacks on Upper Egypt.
761 CE Umayyad armies leave France.
819-822 AD Dongola king and Beja refuse to pay "baqt" tribute and they mount attacks on Egypt
835 AD George I (816-920), crowned King of Dongola
836 AD George I travels to Baghdad and Cairo
868-884 Amr Ahmed ibn Tulun rules Egypt; large numbers of Nubians in Tulunid army.
920 AD Reign of Dongola King Zakaria begins
950 AD Some Muslims reported at Soba
951,956,962 More Nubian raids into Upper Egypt
969-1171 AD Fatimid rule in Egypt; attack on Nubia by al-Umari
969 AD Nubian King George II reigns and attacks Egypt
ca. 1000 AD Nilotic cattle pastoralists from southern and central Africa expand into southern Sudan and western Africa.
Continue - 1000 CE to Present