DATES FOR MAJOR AFRICAN EVENTS
Overview of near term dates is followed by a more comprehensive chronology of historical events.
First Week of January Kwanza / First Fruits / New Year
January 1, 2004 200th Anniversary of African Revolution in Haiti
January 1885 Partition of Africa [The Berlin West Africa Conference]
January 15 Martin Luther King's Birthday
20 February 1957 Establishment of NeoColonialism
April 1958 First Conference of African States
May 25 African Liberation Day
May 1963 Ratification of OAU Charter
October 1965 Sixth Pan African Congress
July 9, 2001 Formation of the African Union
March 18, 2004 Inaugural Session of Pan African Parliament
Click here for 1 CE/AD to 1000 CE
See 1000 CE to 1500 CE
See 1500 CE to 2000 CE
See 2000 CE to Present
CHRONOLOGY [100,000 BCE to 1 BCE]
100,000 BCE Africans make artful incisions in ocher, making Africa home to the oldest images in the world.
50,000 BCE Africa suffers an extinction of 30% of its wildlife species.
41,000 BCE Africans mine iron in what is now Swaziland
37,000-200 BCE Africans in what is now central Nigeria (Nok) produce highly sophisticated sculpures.
35,000 BCE Use of tally sticks in Africa, using base 7 mathematics. Bones with orderly notches representing days in moon cycles.
28,000 BCE Climate deteriorated and the world entered the last major ice age. As a result of this, the Sahara reached up to the Ethiopian Highlands. Central Africa's mountain ranges were covered by ice flow. The River Nile, North of Khartoum, disappeared.
22,000-11,600 BCE Most of the Earth is covered in ice. In the last 4000 years of the ice age, the warming caused the sea level to rise 35 meters. A highly cultivated global Ice Age civilization is destroyed by water.
11,500-10,500 BCE End of the Ice Age. The climate of the Earth abruptly warmed by 20 degrees or more. Temperature increase of almost 59 degrees in the north polar region within a 50-year period, with rapid rise in sea level.
10,500-6000 BCE Ice Age Civilization in Africa survives intact and is centered in the Uplands of the Nile Valley (the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa). The Sicilian historian Diodorus writing later claims that the African civilization became the source of lost Ice Age culture for the rest of the communities outside Africa, which had become disorganized and culturally impoverished. Diodorus claims that the Ethiopians (inclusive of all Africa, and not to be confused with modern Ethiopia) sent out, under one Osiris, a great army, "with the intention of visiting all the inhabited earth and teaching the race of men how to cultivate ... for he (Osiris) supposed that if he made men give up their savagery and adopt a gentle manner of life he would receive immortal honors..." Africans build the Great Sphinxes (supposedly originally two existed) and other astronomically-correct monuments and astro-geometrical structures all over the Earth. Highly organised astronomic-megalithic African-centred world civilization founds daughter civilizations in MesoAmerica, Eurasia and Oceania. Together the Africans and the other humans build massive stone calendars and clocks to map the sky.
10,000 BCE Climate change brought 500 years of persistent, heavy rains and transformed the Nile from a sluggish flow into a wild river with gorges one mile deep.
8200 BCE In southern and eastern Africa, stones engraved with geometric line designs and representations of animals.
8000 BCE Africans in the Congo basin practice brain surgery, and make complex mathematical notations. Lake Chad almost filled its present drainage basin [covering an area comparable in size to the state of Sudan], and spilled southwest out the Benue River to the Atlantic.
8000-2000 BCE People from central Africa occupy the plains of northwestern Africa.
6000 BCE Africans settle in the islands of the Mediterranean and in Europe.
5500 BC By this time, impressive images of animals and humans are engraved and later painted on rock surfaces in the still temperate Sahara. The Large Wild Fauna style features hunting scenes with big game, including the giant buffalo. The Bovidian Pastoral style refers to images of domestic herds thought to have been drawn by early farmers. Tissili and Tibesti Massifs are major centres of African culture, to which communities across Africa trace origins. The harp is depicted in rock art of the Sahara dating back over 7,000 years ago.
5000 BCE Massive volcanic explosion on the floor of the Albertine Rift destroys life and earthquakes cause highly cultivated (Ice Age Osirian) African civilization centered in the Great Lakes Region of Africa to decentralize amid war and inundation. Center of political organization in Africa moves northward to what is now Central and Northern Sudan, and Egypt.
3100 BCE Unification of Ta Waye (Egypt) by Thebaid Pharaoh Nesu Biti Aha after defeat of "Scorpion King". The conquest inscription of Pharaoh Djer at Sheikh Suliman in Ta-Seti (in Sudan); Massive fort at Buhen. Huge pyramid-astronomy complex built at Giza Plateau.
3000 BCE A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since then dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa, especially in Ethiopia in the last 200 years.
2500 BCE The climate of the Sahara changes rapidly, as it dries up, nomadic herders turn to farming and start to settle in cities and towns across Africa. The international phenomenon known as the Beaker culture begins to affect western North Africa. Named for the distinctively shaped ceramics found in graves, the Beaker culture is associated with the emergence of a warrior mentality. North African rock art of this period continues to depict animals but also places a new emphasis on the human figure, equipped with weapons and adornments. People from the Great Lakes region of Africa settle along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea to become the Canaanites who dominated the lowlands between the Jordan river, the Mediterranean and the Sinai desert.
2250-2050 BCE Rise of Central/Southern African Kerma civilization in Kush and Egypt. The Kerma culture is centered around cattle rearing and refined pottery.
2050-1795 BCE Reunification of Egypt by Pharaoh Mentuhotep II; start of the Middle Kingdom (Dynasties XI-XII); major forts and temples in Kush at Faras, Aksha, Semna, and Buhen. Conflict between Egyptian and Kushite ruling houses.
1900-1575 BCE Further expansion of Kerma Culture in Kush; beaker pottery with red polish; huge tumulus burials for Kerma kings with sacrificial burials; massive brick 'defuffa' buildings.
1900 BCE A port is constructed. This port is named Rakouda and was located in the same place as the current Port Alexandria.
1887-1850 BCE Pharaoh Sesostris III (of royal Kushite descent) dominates Europe and Asia, and has extensive military, trading and fort network in Kush and Upper Egypt. Sesostris' African (Kushite) garrison stationed on the Black Sea coast at Colchis becomes the main center of trade and government in the Caucasus. The Garrison does not return home.
1874 BCE A canal connecting the Mediterranean to the Red Sea (original Suez Canal) is constructed by Sesostris III.
1786-1567 BCE Second Intermediate Period in Egypt (Dynasties XIII-XVII; Hyksos invade Egypt; horses and bronze swords introduced; Return of Kushite autonomy; Hyksos and Kushites ally against Egypto-Kushite Pharoah Kamose's effort to reunify the Nile Valley. Lower Egyptian royalty flee to Kush. Hebrews are captive in Egypt. Introduction of the horse and war chariots to the Nile valley.
1700 BCE Egyptian inscriptions refer to a region in Africa named Punt whose exports include giraffe, apes, ostriches, lions, leopards, elephant tasks, gold and precious stones.
1595- Hittites fight with Egyptians over the control of Canaan (later known as Syria).
1570-1090 BCE Kerma dominance in Egypt and Kush is destroyed by Egyptian New Kingdom Pharaohs who rule the northern Sudan reaching the 4th cataract; Numerous forts, temples and towns built. Shaduf (keeyay) water-bucket irrigation technology introduced. The "King’s Son of Kush" becomes an established position that governs Lower Kush (Wawat) and Upper Egypt. Admiral Ahmose, son of Ebana reports that on the kings orders he went on campaign to Kush and penetrated beyond the 3rd cataract and inflict massive losses on Kushites.
1570-1546 BCE Reign of Ahmose I in Egypt; Kushite campaigns and the appointment of an Egyptian as the "King’s Son of Kush".
1550 BCE Use in Africa of acacia gum which contains lactic acid, as a natural spermicide, for contraceptive purposes
1546-1526 BCE Reign of Amenhotep I; Thuwre appointed Viceroy of Wawat and Kush
1530-1515 BCE Pharaoh Thutmosis I dominates north Africa and the near Asia as far as Euphrates, and attacks Kush.
1529 BCE Moses (of the Bible) is born at Memphis Egypt and is adopted by princess Neferubity Thermuthis (sister to Hatshepsut and Thutmosis II).
1509? BCE Kushite armies engage in battles with Egyptian army. Kushites defeat Egyptian forces and capture the whole of Egypt including the Mediterenean coast. The Egyptians unable to free themselves from the Kushite army ask for Moses' help. Moses organizes an Egyptian force and crossing an unguarded snake-infested region of the western desert, bypasses the main Kushite army formations so as to attack Saba (Sheba), the Kushite capital. During the fighting at the fortifications around Saba, Kushite Princess Tharbis demands marriage to Moses as condition for truce, after which agreement the Kushite armies withdraw from Egypt. Moses returns to Egypt with Tharbis.
1489 BCE Moses flees from Egypt after killing an Egyptian.
1473-1458 BCE Reign of Queen Hatshepsut who builds temples in Upper Egypt and conducts trade with Punt in East Africa, and Ophir in Central and South Africa.
1450 BCE Moses returns from exile and confronts Pharaoh Thutmosis III over the enslavement of Hebrews. Thutmosis and a division of the Egyptian army are drowned by the Red Sea as a result of unusual hydrolic phenomenon. Amunhotep succeeds Thutmosis III after his body is recovered from the sea shore. Thousands of Kushites join the exodus with the Hebrews as they leave Egypt. Danaan, Ogham and other leaders also leave Egypt with their followers and go to Greece and Ireland.
c. 1450-1400 Punt is ruled by person with the title or name Parahu (probably Pharaoh), who is succeeded by a female empress called Itey the Corpulent..
1441 BCE Probably on instigation of Mitanni Empire, Ugarit in Canaan revolts against Egypt. Thutmosis III sends son and co-pharaoh Amenhotep II to put down the rebellion.
1409? BCE Moses dies and succeeded by Miriam, Aaron and Joshua. Miriam confronts Tharbis in the desert. Tharbis returns to Kush. Greeks start to refer to Ta Waye as Egypt, a corruption of HeKaPtah (Spirit Temple of Ptah) the name of the Memphis temple of the god Ptah.
1410 BCE Joshua at the battle of Jericho
1403-1365 BCE Reign of Queen Tiy and Amenhotep III; builders of temple at Solb. Yuya the father of Queen Tiy is an official in the courts of both Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III. Yuya is also Master of Horse, a title which carried the name "Father of the God" (father to Pharaoh - Gen 45:8). Yuya served as chancellor of the North and as a priest of both Hermonthis and Amon during his career. His wife is named Tuya.
1352-1336 BCE Akhenaten pharaoh in Egypt and co-ruler with Queen Nefertiti, maternal niece of Egypto-Kushite Matriarch Tiy. Like his father, Akhenaten derives his right to rule from his marriage to a member of the matriarchal lineage, usually bearing the title God's Wife of Amun, or High Priestess of Isis. Whereas any male could serve as Pharaoh, and any woman as consort and mother of pharaoh, the real authority of the royal house and the sovereignty of the state always resided in the Queen matriarch (regent or high priestes of Amon or Isis). The women in Egypt carried the royal blood, not the men. King Tut therefore was married to Nefertiti, the daughter of the vizier Ay. Ay was a brother of the leading Egyptian royal, Queen Tiy (Anen was her other brother), and a son of Yuya and Tuya. Nefertiti's mother is not known; Nefertiti was brought up by another wife of Ay named Tey.
1336-1334 BCE Smenkhkare (brother of king Tut) pharaoh of Egypt.
1334-1325 BCE Tutankhamun rules Egypt together with Queen Ankhesenamun. King Tut dies in 1325. Queen Ankhesenamun, writes to Suppiliumas, the Hittite king, requesting one of his sons for her to marry and make pharaoh. After some investigation by Suppiliumas, Ankhesenamun's request is granted, but his son, Zannanza is killed en-route while traveling through Syria.
1325-1321 BCE After Tut's death, 70 year-old Prime-Minister Ay, brother to Matriarch Tiy, and brother in-law of Amenhotep III, rules as Pharaoh and "marries" Ankhesanamun (King Tut's queen).
1321-1295 BCE Horemheb, commander of the Egyptian armies and co-regent with Ay, is Pharaoh in Egypt. Horemheb had no heir so he appointed a military leader, Ramesses I, to succeed him.
1295-1298 BCE Ramesses I is Pharaoh in Egypt.
1279-1213 BCE Reign of Ramses II, son of Seti I and Queen Tuya; Temples at Abu Simbel, Amara West, and Aksha.
1212-1203 BCE Merenptah, son of Ramesses II is Pharaoh in Egypt.
1210 BCE Egyptians and Pharaoh Merenptah record a major attack by Sea People.
1203-1197 Queen Tenosret and king Siptah are co-Pharaohs in Egypt.
1200 BCE Canaanite Phoenicians borrow the 27 (later 22) character alphabet from the Egyptians. New waves of invasions to the Middle East destroy the balance of order between Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. Hill, desert and steppe peoples mingle in such efforts. From now, wandering tribes include Hebrews, Philistines, Aramaeans, Phrygians, Dorians, Chaldeans, Medes (Kurds). Dorians Greeks invade from the north, plunder citadels and kings of Mycenae. They displaced older Greek inhabitants including the Ionians of Attica, and the Acheaens. The Sea People destroy Ugarit an ancient Canaanite city hear the coast dating back to Third Millennium. The Phrygians, a tribe from Thrace or Macedonia, moves into Anatolia with the Sea People.
1197-1195 Queen Tenosret is Pharaoh in Egypt.
1198-1151 BCE Reign of Ramesses III in Egypt.
1193 Beginning in his 5th regnal year, Ramesses III son of Sethnakht defeats attact of the delta by massive confederation of Sea peoples, including the "chief of the Pelusti", Sherdens of the Sea, Pelusti, Mycenians, Greeks etc, who have overrun Libya. The invasion includes an assortment of different communities, probably dislodged by food shortages caused by Dorian invasion of Mycenea, or by natural disasters. Invading Sea Peoples arrive with women and children numbering in the tens of thousands and overun Syrian coast. Ramesses kills thousands of Sea Peoples. The confederation of Sea Peoples advances by land and sea to Egypt, they overrun the Hittites and camp at Amor in Syria. Ramesses III fights them in a land battle in Canaan and a sea battle in a delta mouth. The Sea Peoples turn back west and go further, possibly settling among Sicilians, Sardinians, Estruscans. Philistine and Tjekker Sea People who came overland, are resettled by Ramesses III in Egyptian military camps in Canaanite coastal areas, to guard the overland routes on behalf of Egypt. Hittite empire is devasted by Sea People.
1184-1174 BCE Trojan war. King Priam of Troy and many Trojans are under siege by "Sea Peoples" including Myceneans, Pelesgians, Acheaens, etc. Africans fight on both sides. Amazons fight on Trojan side. Memnon, the African king of Persia (and brother to Emathion, king of Arabia) arrives from Susa with 200,000 African troops to defend Troy and is killed by Achilles.
1180 BCE Up to 12,000 Sea Peoples invade Libyan coast and about 20,000 attack Egypt.
1100 BCE Massive stone forts and temples standing in Southern Africa (Ophir), with gold as the main export.
1069 BC-945 BC Egypt is controlled by the high priest of Amun at Thebes.
1069-715 BC Third Intermediate Period in Egypt. (Dynasties XXI-XXIV), rival dynasties in Egypt Tanite (XXI dynasty, 1069-945 BC) established in Delta; later replaced by another dynasty at Bubastis. Herihor serves as King’s Son of Kush under Ramses XI. As Dynasty XX closes Herihor (ca. 1060 BC) becomes High Priest of Amun and his son Piankhi becomes governor of the Thebaid province.
1020-960 BCE In 1020 Makeda is born in Ophir and educated in Abbysinia. Makeda’s mother is queen Ismenie and her father is Chief Minister to Za Sebado, king of Kush. Angabo from Saba (Sheba), the capital of Kush, arrives in Abyssinia and rescinds order to sacrifice Makeda to a serpent named Wainaba. Angabo becomes king in Abbyssina. Makeda’s father succeeds Za Sabado as King in Saba.
1005 BCE Makeda’s father dies and she becomes matriarch ruler of Kush and the rest of Africa, including Egypt, at age 15.
970 BCE Salvage of royal Egyptian mummies to secret cache at Deir al Bahri.
950 BCE Kushite commander Aserkhamen conducts military campaigns to restore order to Egypt.
945-715 BCE Reign of Dynasty XXII; Kushites and Canaanites (Hittites & Phoenicians) establish a large number of ports on the North African shore, and on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and western Sicily and on the shore of Spain.
961+ BCE Solomon begins his reign and marries the daughter of Pharaoh Pasebkhanu II. Pasebkhanu sends his daughter off with 80,000 builders and 1000 musical instruments.
945 - 924 BCE Shishak (Sheshonq) married to sister of the wife of king Solomon. Hadad the Edomite prince escapes to Egypt and finds refuge in Shishak’s palace. Lady Talipenes, Pharaoh’s sister-in-law, marries Hadad and gives birth to their child Genubath. Tamrin Chief of Makeda’s Navy tells her about the Temple project in Jerusalem. Kandake (Queen) Makeda travels to Jerusalem to visit Solomon. Tamrin brings gold, ebony and precious stones to Solomon for use in the Temple. Jeroboam, commander of Solomon’s armies rebels and escapes to Egypt to take refuge in Shishak’s palace in Egypt.
936 BCE Pharaoh Shishak invades Israel and attacks Jerusalem.
931 BCE King Solomon dies and is succeeded by his son Rehoboam amid political instability.
900 BCE Timbuctu is a thriving and major metropolis. Africans in what is now Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon are producing sophisticated high art "Nok" terracottas.
850 BCE Napata replaces Sheba as the royal capital of Kush. Rulers in Napata begin burials at Kurru.
818-715 BCE Reign of Egyptian Dynasty XXIII.
814 BCE Tyrian (Canaanite) Princess Elissa founds Carthage after her brother kills her husband.
ca. 800 BCE After Pharaoh Shishak's death Egypt disintegrated. The Delta princes at war with the Pharaoh Osorkon IV of Dyn.XXII. Kushites armies in Libya under command of Kushite Prince Kashta (and king in Libya) enter Egypt to restore order.
790-760 BCE Reign of Kushite Pharaoh Alara, founder of Dynasty XXV, starting the "Late Period in Egypt and the reunification of the Nile valley.
765 BCE Prince Piankhy (grand nephew of Alara) completes conquest of Egypt.
760-656 BCE Reunification of Egypt under the Kushite Dynasty XXV.
760-747 BCE Reign of Kushite Pharaoh Kashta. Kashta control all of the Nile Valley and western Africa including the Mediterranean coast. Kashta drives Osorkon IV (Dyn. XXII) back into the Egyptian Delta. Kashta is buried at Kurru in Kush.
750-700 BCE Phoenician alphabet arrives in Greece. Oldest Greek text titled “the Ethiopians” is written. Homer (or other writers whose works are attributed to Homer), quoting "The Ethiopians" writes Odyssey and Hesiod, describing the Trojan War. Assyrian attacks destabilize Israel, Judah, and Phoenicia despite Kushite protection
725 BCE Assyrians capture and obliterate Hittite, Phoenician and other Canaanite city states including Sidon, Tyre (Phoenician) and Israel.
747-716 BCE Reign of Kandake Neferukekashta and Pharaoh Piankhy, son of Kashta. Piankhy controls all of Egypt and uses siege tactics against the Assyrians. To protect the estates of the god Amon, the Pharaoh Piankhy makes Thebes a Kushite province and no longer under Egyptian jurisdiction.
ca. 730 BCE Piankhy fights Tefnakht (Dyn. XXIV) in the Delta and halts Tefnakht’s drive to the south.
ca. 730 BCE Piankhy erects stela.
744-612 BCE Height of Assyrian power. Prince Taharka commands Kushite and Egyptian divisions in the Peloponese to defend allied nations against Assyrian attack.
716 BCE Death of Piankhy; he is buried at Kurru.
716-701 BCE Reign of Kandake Amenirdis I and Pharaoh Shabaka, (younger brother of Piankhy); Shabaka sends troops to supports Judea at Al-Taku in the battle against the Assyrians under Sennacherib. In order to divert the Assyrians, Shabaka stimulates revolts in the Levant. Shabaka rules Egypt from Thebes. At the end of his life he is buried at Kurru.
701-690 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Shabataka (Shebitqu). Both Shabaka and Shabataka are mentioned in the Torah/Bible (Genesis 10). He is buried at Kurru.
701 BCEShabataka deploys Kushite army under command of Prince Taharka to save Jerusalem under the Judean king Hezekiah. The Kushite army kills 185,000 Assyrian troops, breaks Assyrian siege of JeruSalem, and relieves Phoenician, Greek and Hittite allies from Assyrian attacks.
700-500 Heavy Greek colonization of Sicily, Southern Italy, Southern Provence, Andalusia and Cyrenaica, encircling Carthaginian territory.
690-664 BCE Taharka leads expedition to Spain. Coronation of Taharka at Memphis (meets his mother at coronation after 18 years away from home). Taharka adds to the temple at Jebel Barkal (690 BCE). Pharaoh Taharka is ruler of Libya as well as Kush. Ruling from Memphis and Thebes he continually fought to protect the Nile valley from the Assyrians led by Esarhaddon (680-669), the son and successor of Sennacherib. Taharka also sought the restoration of Pharaonic authority, religion and architecture.
680-669 BCE Camels introduced to Egypt by Assyrian King Esarhaddon. Later camels became critical in trans-Saharan trade. In order to divert Esarhaddon away from the Nile, Taharka stimulates revolts at Sidon and Tyre in Phoenicia. These revolts were crushed. Esarhaddon attacks Tanis and Memphis in Egypt.
671 BCE Esarhaddon speeds across Sinai with his camel cavalry and meets the Kushite and Egyptian forces of Taharka in the eastern Delta; Taharka is defeated and withdraws from Tanis to Memphis.
670 BCE Taharka retakes the Delta from the Assyrians
669 BCE Assyrians under Esarhaddon siege and sack Memphis; son and wife of Taharka are taken captive by Esarhaddon to Assyria; Taharka resumes sends troops to support Phoenicians against Assyrian attacks.
668 BCE Esarhaddon dies on route back to Egypt. Ashurbanipal, (668-627) son of Esarhaddon resumes military campaign and sacks Memphis.
667 BCE Taharka withdraws from Egypt to Napata.
664 BCE Taharka dies and is buried at Kurru pyramid field. Rise of Dyn XXVI in Egypt (664-525 BCE).
664-653 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Tanutamun (Tanwetamani), nephew of Taharka.
664 BCE Tanutamun regains control of Memphis and the entire Nile valley, but with weak support from the Delta princes under Assyrian pressure and with rival claims to rule Lower Egypt by Psammetichos I (664-610 BC), he withdraws to Thebes.
661 BCE Tanutamun’s army is defeated at Memphis. Ashurbanipal attacks Thebes.
656-590 BCE Kushite withdrawal back to the Sudan and central Africa. Napata becomes center for worship of Amun.
654 BCE Carthage founds colony in the Balearic Islands at Ibiza.
653 BCE Death of Tanutamun; He is the last king to be buried at Kurru
653-643 BCE Reign of Atlanersa
643-623 BCE Reign of Senkamanisken (father of Aspelta and Anlamani); Buried at Nuri
625 BCE Naucratis established in Delta for Greek traders.
623-593 BCE Reign of Anlamani. Campaigns against the Blemmyes in the Eastern desert. Anlamani was crowned at Kawa, and was buried at Nuri.
600 BCE Pharaoh Necho commissions Phoenician sailors to circumnavigate Africa. The voyage takes 3 years but is successful. Phoenicians spend part of the time in Southern Africa, long enough to grow and harvest food to complete their journey.
593-568 BCE Reign of Aspelta who attacks against Necho II in Egypt; Aspelta is buried at Nuri.
591 BCE Aspelta defeated in attempt to reclaim Egypt from the Saite XXVIth Dynasty. The border of Kush established at 2nd cataract.
590 BCE Psammetichos II (595-589, Dyn XXVI) invades Kush to 3rd cataract, and fights at the northern plain of Dongola seizing 4,200 African captives. He also hacks out inscriptions to pharaohs of the XXVth Dynasty, and his soldiers put graffiti inscriptions at Abu Simbel. He threatens the safety of Napata. Kushites reinstate Saba (Sheba) the old capital. Pharoah Necho II escapes from Egypt and spends the rest of his life as a refugee in Kush.
590 BC - 350 AD Rise and gradual decline of Kush at Saba. Saba is famed for notable iron-production technology; Kings of Kush still proclaimed as "Lords of Two Lands" (meaning Egypt).
580 BCE First Attempts by Greeks to drive Carthageans out of Silicily
574 BCE Tyre falls to Nebchadnezzar, making Carthage the leading Phoenician center.
570-526 BCE Amasis rules Egypt.
568-555 BCE Reign of King Aramatelqo in Kush
550 BCE Carthage allies with the Etruscans against the Greeks. Carthaginian force led by Malchus defeats Greeks in Sicily, but is vanquished in Sardinia. Malchus banished, marches on Carthage, is caught and executed. Carthaginian colonies formed along coast of Africa (Hadrumetum, Leptis).
539 BCE All of Phoenicia in the Levant falls to Cyrus the Great of Persia, only the Phoenician colonies, under Carthage, in Africa are left sovereign.
538 Death of Cyrus, succeeded by his son Cambyses. Cambyses mother is an Egyptian princess.
535 BCE Carthage, with Etruscans, destroys Phocaean colony in Corsica and closes Sardinia-Corsica off to the Greeks.
529-521 BC Reign of Persian King Cambyses in Egypt, after his defeat of Psamtik III in 525 at Pelusium. He captures Thebes but is repulsed by the Kushites.
525-398 BC Persian Dynasty XXVII
524 BC Cambyses campaigns in Kush, and renames Saba (Sheba) after his sister Meroe. The Kushites counter attack and drive Cambyses army out of Kush.
514 BC Carthage defeats the Spartan Dorieus' attempt to colonize Libyan coast.
500 BCE Hanno sails down west African coast. His account of the voyage is lost and a Greek version written in 3 AD tells of the account, probably with some inaccuracies.
507 BCE First Carthagean treaty with Rome
498 BCE Hippocrates and Theron seize control in Syracuse and attempt to throw Phoenicians off western part of the island.
487-485 BC Revolt in Upper Egypt.
486 BCE Death of Darius, Xerxes comes to power.
480 BCE Carthagean Alliance with Persia fails to destroy Greeks, military defeat in Sicily as fleet is cut off by superior Athenian forces (Himera). Revolution overthrows Mago dynasty and establishes Court of 104 Magistrates. Carthaginian force under Hamilcar the Magonid defeated by Sicilian Greeks at Himera cutting off access to the East. Hamilcar commits suicide on the battlefield.
479-450 BCE Carthage conquers most of Tunisia. Colonies in North Africa founded or strengthened. Mago's expedition across the Sahara. Sataspes, a relative of king Xerxes of Persia, is forced to sail around Africa but fails and returns home after entering African cities and eating some cows belonging to the short-statured citizens.
474 BC Carthage defeats Etruscans at sea battle off Cumae
466 BC Benghazi, Libya: founded as capital of Cyrenaica
462-454 BC Pericles of Athenian alliance captures Memphis, Egypt (460-454); Revolt in Egypt against the Persians. Romans give support to Egyptians.
450-410 BC Jewish Military colony in Egypt on Nile island of Yeb; according to later excavation and discovery, the colony appears to worship several gods includes Yahu (YHW), Eshem ('SM), goddess Anath ('NT), Bethel (BYT'L) & Herem.
430 BCE Herodotus reaches Aswan. He writes The Histories describing Meroe as Africa’s leading metropolis and industrial center.
410 BC Temple of Yahu (YHW) on Nile island of Yeb is destroyed. Phoenicians in Spain join with Celtiberians to secede from Carthage, denying the state important silver and copper revenues. Overland tin trade cut off. Himilco's expeditions in the Atlantic. Hanno's expeditions to Morocco and Senegal.
409 BCE Carthage initiates attempts to conquer Sicily. Hannibal, grandson of Hamilcar, takes the fortified towns of Selinus and Himera by use of siege towers.
405 BCE Hannibal Mago and hundreds of troops die in epidemic outside fortified town of Acragas. Himilco, his relative, takes over command, is defeated by force out of Syracuse, and has supply disrupted in naval action. Syracusan forces strengthen garrison. Carthaginian squadron breaks through Greek blockade -- the besieged escape under cover of night, Punic forces collect spoils. Himilco takes town of Gela, defeating Syracusan force, then takes town of Camarina. Himilco marches on Syracuse. Army is laid low by epidemic. Himilco seeks peace. Syracuse grants control of most of Sicily and must pay tribute to Carthage. Treaty confirms Dionysius I as dictator (tyrannos) of Syracuse. First Sicilian War concluded.
404-369 Reign of Kushite King Harsiyotef; fought against Blemmyes in eastern desert. Buried at Nuri
398 Dionysius sacks Motya -- Carthaginians permanently relocate main Sicilian base to fortified town of Lilybaeum.
397 Himilco drives Dionysius back to Syracuse and resumes siege. In naval action, sinks or boards 100 Syracusan naval vessels and takes 20,000 prisoners.
396 Epidemic lays Punic forces low for a third time in Sicily. Dionysius capitalizes and defeats Himilco in pitched battle. He survives, but upon return to Carthage, starves himself to death. Fighting continues.
393 Carthaginian force under Mago, nephew of Himilco, defeated trying to re-take Messana.
392 Mago defeated a second time. Truce signed.
384 Carthage renews war, initiating minor skirmishes.
380 BC 30th Dynasty founded by Nekhtnebf I, last African dynasty of Egypt
375 BCE Carthage defeated at Cabala -- Mago and 10,000 soldiers killed. Mago's son Himilco defeats Dionysius near Himera -- truce favorable to Carthage concluded.
367 BCE Dionysius attacks Carthaginian base at Lilybaeum -- stopped when fleet defeated by warships under Hanno the Great.
366 BCE Dionysius I dies, still at war with Carthage.
360 BCE Hanno the Great crucified following unsuccessful attempt to usurp power.
360-342 BC Reign of last Egyptian Pharaoh Nectanebo II of the XXX Dynasty (380-343 BC)
350 BCE Carthage now leading Western power, is allied with Egypt and Kush.
348 BCE Second Carthagean treaty with Rome.
342-333 BC Second Persian conquest of Egypt; The last Pharaoh of Egypt Nectanebo II (Dyn. XXXI) flees to Kush.
335-315 BC Reign of Kushite King Nastasen; fought against the Blemmyes and fearful of Persian and Greek attacks. The last Kushite to rule from Napata.
334 BCE Carthage makes peace with the Greek empire and with the Lagos monarchy in Egypt.
332 BCE Siege and Defeat of Tyre and Gaza by Alexander the Great of Macedonia; rout of Persians; Conquest of Egypt and end of Persian domination welcomed by Africans (Egyptians, Kushites and Carthageans). Greek expeditions in many parts of Africa; Greek language and culture introduced.
331 BCE Foundation of Alexandria;
327 BCE At Makaranda in Samarkand, Persia, during a drunken rage Alexander murders Cleitus Niger, the African King of Bactria, foster brother of Alexander and commander of the "royal squadron" of the Greek/Macedonian armies under Phillip and Alexander. Anaxagoras, the sceptical philospher in Alexander's entourage, justifies Alexander's murder of Cleitus on the grounds that, by definition, all the king's acts were just. The troops sign a petition to exonorate Alexander from responsibility for the murder.
323 BCE Alexander dies
323-282 BCE Ptolemy I: satrap of Egypt, disciple of Aristotle, moved remaining Jews of Judea to Alexandria & founded Museum in 323, Library in 307, ruled Syria 319-314, in 305 named Soter (Savior), founds Ptolemaic Empire of Egypt
310 BCE Carthaginian force under Hamilcar, grandson of Hanno the Great, defeats Greek force at Himera.
309 BCE Agathocles sails force of 14,000 to Africa. Carthage meets with 40,000 foot, 1000 cavalry and 2000 chariots under Bomilcar and Hanno. Greeks are victorious, Carthage losing 3000 on the battlefield, but city is impregnable. Siege of Syracuse continues.
308 BCE Greeks form local allies against Carthage -- Egypt contributes 10,000. Greeks control Tunisian province and fighting between Carthagean and Greek/Egyptians continues.
308 BCE Bomilcar tries to make himself dictator in Carthage. Is defeated and tortured to death.
307 BCE Greek victory outside Syracuse. Hamilcar captured and killed.
307 BCE While Agathocles oversees events in Syracuse, Carthage defeats the Greek and allied forces. Despite Syracusan reinforcement, Greek cause in Africa is doomed. Greeks desert to Carthaginian commanders Hanno and Himilco in vast numbers. Treaty favorable to Carthage concluded.
306 BCE Third Carthagean treaty with Rome.
305-284 BCE BCE Ptolemy I Soter, rules from Alexandria.
300 BCE Massive African migration southward ahead of the expanding Sahara. Pytheas explores the Atlantic, Euthymenes the coasts of Africa.
289 BCE Agathocles dies. Pre-war division of Sicily resumes. 3rd Sicilian War ends.
279 BCE Pyrrhus of Epirus, relative of Alexander the Great, invades southern Italy and Sicily. Defeats Phoenicians and forces them off the island, leaving Lilybaeum as the only remaining stronghold.
279 BCE Agreement with Rome against Pyrrhus.
277? BCE Carthage sinks 70 of Pyrrhus' 110 ships and Pyrrhus gives up the war.
272 BCE A woman hurls a tile from a rooftop as Pyrrhus invests Argos, killing him before he can begin his second invasion of Sicily agianst the Carthageans.
285 BCE 300-foot-tall lighthouse on the island of Pharos in Alexandria's harbor serves as a landmark for ships in the eastern Mediterranean. Light from its wood fire, reflected by convex mirrors at its top, can be seen for miles. Built by Sostratus of Cnidus, it is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and will remain an important navigational aid for 1600 years.
284-247 BCE Reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
280-274 BCE Ptolemy II raids Lower Kush for captives, livestock, and has hunting or trading expeditions for elephants in Meroë.
275 BCE Manetho: Egyptian High Priest wrote "History of Egypt" in Greek.
274 BCE Ptolemy II wages first war against the Seleucids under Antiochus I.
270 BCE Napatan period of Kush comes to an end
264 BCE Roman public gladiator combats begin. Many Africans will excel and die in this combat.
264-241 BCE First Punic War between Rome and Carthage.
260 BCE First Kushite King Arakamani-qu (Ergamenes) to be buried at Meroë (Bejrawiya cemetery); Arakakamani had studied the Greek language. Expansion of cattle and elephant hunting at Musawwarat es-Sufra in Butana plain; expansion of iron production.
263 BCE First War between Carthage and Rome begins over Sicily.
261 Carthage raids Italian coast. Rome builds its first fleet. Carthaginian defeat at sea off Mylae. Commander Hannibal crucified. Victory at Thermae.
260-253 BCE Second Syrian war between Ptolemy II and Antiochus II.
257 Another sea defeat and Romans land in Africa, take Tunis. Carthage, under forces led by Hasdrubal and Bostzer, defeats Rome before the gates, largely with Numidian cavalry, led by Greek mercenary leader Xanthippus.
256 Hanno the Great II expands territory in North Africa.
253 Rome wins a brilliant naval victory off the Aegates Islands, west of Sicily, cutting off African supply bases. Hasdrubal defeated outside Panormus and is executed by his own forces. Truce called.
250 BCE Synagogues: places to study Torah (Mosaic Law) appear
253 BC Antiochus II married Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II.
250 BC Translation of Jewish Bible into Greek.
247 BCE Hannibal born in Carthage, later to become general of Carthagian army
247 Hamilcar Barca re-organizes forces on Sicily, but receives no reinforcement.
246-222 BC Reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes; has expedition in Nubia led by Eudoxus and he wages war against Seleucus II in Third Syrian War (246-241). Ptolemy III marries Berenice of Cyrene (daughter of Magus King of Cyrene).
245 BC Babylon and Susa fall to the Egyptian armies of Ptolemy III.
243 BC Ptolemy III is recalled from Syria by a revolt in Egypt; he ceases his martial interests and his support of the Egyptian army.
241 BCE War between Carthage and Rome over Silicy ends in defeat of Carthage. Sicily is lost, Carthagean fleet destroyed and finances ruined due to crippling indemnity.
241-237 Mercenaries under Carthage revolt and stir up poverty-stricken peasants in Libya and Utica. Eventually the mercenaries are defeated by Hamilcar. Rome obtains Sardinia-Corsica as price of staying neutral in the war to suppress mercernary revolt.
237 BC Carthagean army under Hamilcar Barca, 33, invades the Iberian Peninsula. Hamilcar Barca reconquers Spain.
228 BC Carthagean General Hamilcar Barca falls in battle. Command of his army in the Iberian Peninsula passes to his son-in-law Hasdrubal.
238 BC Rome captures Sardinia then Corsica from Carthage
222-205 BC Reign of Ptolemy IV Epiphanes; had good relations with Meroë with whom he traded for elephants.
221-204 BCE Ptolemy IV builds in the Dodekaschoenos.
221 BC Carthaginian general Hasdrubal is assassinated. Command of the troops is assumed by Hannibal, 26, a son of the late Hamilcar Barca, and his brother Hasdrubal. Egyptian medical studies at Alexandria are supported by Ptolemy IV, who is weaker than his predecessors but devoted to the pursuit of science.
219-217 BC Antiochus III of Syria seizes the province of Coele-Syria from Egypt, initiating a Fourth Syrian War. Between Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III. Egypt is saved by intervention of Egyptian troops at the battle of Raphia.
218-201 BCE Second Punic War begins as a Carthaginian army under Hannibal attacks Rome's Hispanic allies. He besieges the town of Sagunto, whose inhabitants eat their own dead rather than surrender but are eventually forced to yield. He crosses the Alps and defeats Roman forces of Cornelius Scipio at the Ticino River and again at the Trebbia River.
217 BCE The Battle of Lake Trasimene in Umbria June 24 ends in victory for Hannibal, who nearly destroys a large Roman army led by Gaius Flaminius. Carthaginians and Gauls kill some 16,000 Romans, including Flaminius, and turn the lake red with blood. Egyptian hoplites under Ptolemy IV Philopater crush the Seleucid army at Raphia
216 BCE The Battle of Cannae August 2 ends in victory for Hannibal, whose 40,000-man army defeats a heavily armored Roman force of 70,000. Some 50,000 Roman and allied troops are killed, 10,000 are taken prisoner, but Hannibal lacks the catapults and battering rams needed to besiege Rome and contents himself with laying waste the fields of Italy, forcing Rome to import grain at war-inflated prices. Greek sovereigns Philip V of Macedonia and Hiero of Syracuse join Carthage's cause.
214-205 Antigonid Kings of Macedon, attacked by Rome for siding with Carthage in 1st Macedonian War
210-205 Scipio with aid of Numidian Prince Massinissa conquers Spain for Rome. Carthage backs rival Numidian Syphax who along with Hasdrubal Gisco is defeated by Scipio in two successive battles. Scipio invades Africa, takes Tunis.
207 BCE The Battle of Metaurus in Umbria ends Hannibal's hopes of success in Italy. A Carthaginian army under Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal is defeated by the Romans under the consuls Claudius Nero and Livius Salinator. Hasdrubal is killed in the battle.
204 BC Roman forces under P. Cornelius Scipio (Scipio Africanus) besiege Carthage. Carthaginians immolate 100 boys of noble birth in an effort to propitiate the god Moloch to raise the Roman siege. Mago is defeated in northern Italy attempting to reinforce Hannibal. A peace treaty is declared and Hannibal returns to Africa.
204-185 BCE Kush regains control of Lower Nubia and foments revolts in Egypt.
204-180 BC Reign of Ptolemy V Philometor. Inscription of Rosetta Stone.
203-200 BC Philip and Antiochus plot against Egypt.
202 BCE Carthaginan attack on Roman convoy which has run aground re-opens the war. Hannibal defeated at Zama to end Second War with Rome. Fleet reduced to ten triremes, domain limited to eastern Tunisia, Massinissa installed as king of the Numidians at Cirta (Constantine), high indemnities and Carthage denied permission to wage war.
202-150 Trade with North Africa and Greece continues. Agriculture improved to bring in new revenues.
200 BC Greek geographer Erastosthenes describes Nubia. "Nok" high culture ceases.
196 BC Foundation of library at Pergamun.
195 Hannibal becomes Suffete. State reform, new methods of election in Carthage.
194 Hannibal flees to court of Antiochus to escape his Roman enemies.
185? BCTerence born in Libya, later to be enslaved and sold in Rome where he will become writer of drama.
183 Hannibal dies by his own hand to escape Romans in Bithynia.
181-145 BC Reign of Ptolemy VI, reactivates Nubian gold mines and regains control of the Dodekaschoenos to resume temple construction or addition projects.
170-168 BC War between Ptolemy VI and Antiochus IV of Syria.
166-164 BC Jewish (Maccabean) revolt against Antiochus IV who desecrates the temple at Jerusalem and forces Hellenization. The Jewish celebration of Hanukah commemorates the miracle of this time that made a little oil in a lamp burn for eight days.
164-163 BC Flight of Ptolemy VI from Egypt.
159 BC Terence of Libya arrives in Rome as slave, and begins to write comic dramas including: Andria, Hecyra, Heauton timorumenos, Eunuchus, Phormio, and Adelphi.
150 BC Kandake Shanakdakheto has first clearly dated inscription in Meroitic cursive. Carthage attacks Numidians in response to Massinissa's land grabs. Numidia victorious and further indemnities exacted.
149 Rome declares war in retaliation for treaty violation.
149-146 BCE Third and last Punic war. Carthage falls to Scipio Aemilianus. Romans sack Carthage and kill 450,000 Africans. City burnt to the ground. "Delenda est Carthago." In the process of the war Polybius, a Greek historian, sails down along the west coast of Africa in ships lent to him by his friend Scipio Aemilianus.
145 BCE Death of Ptolemy VI. Aristarchus and other intellectuals of the Alexandria library flee with the rise of Ptolemy VIII.
145-130 BC Reign of Ptolemy VIII, Physcon.
112-101 BC Marius & Sulla of Rome defeat King Jugurtha of Numidia
111-80 BCE Bocchus I rules Mauretania
105 BCE 1st College of Technology in Alexandria, founded by mathematician Heron
ca. 100 BC Saqia (eskalay) water wheel introduced. Long conquest inscription recorded on stela of Qore (also written “Gore”) Tanyidamani.
80 BCE Ptolemy XI appointed by General Sulla (Dictator of Rome); Ptolemy married former Queen, murdered her and was then murdered by irate mob.
80-51 BC Reign of Ptolemy XII, `the Piper'
73-71 BC Romans finally crush the slave revolt of Spartacus in Southern Italy.
56-34 BCE Artavazd II, Armenian King, playwright, murdered by Antony & Cleopatra
ca. 50 BCE Diodorus terms Kush as the home of Egyptians, and of civilization itself. Reigns of Kandakes Amanirenas and Amanishakheto.
49 BCE Queen Cleopatra VII is deposed by her brother Ptolemy XIII
48 BC Pompey flees to Egypt where he is assassinated. Alexandrian War and Julius Caesar seeks rule of Egypt. Reinstates Cleopatra as Queen of Egypt.
51-30 BC Reign of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV, initially as co-regents, then she rules alone.
50-31 BCE Bocchus II ruler of Mauretania
47 BCE Library of Ptolemy I Soter in Alexandria destroyed by fire
44-21 BC Period of activity of the geographer Strabo, who waxes eloquent about the breasts of Meroe’s women.
37-36 BC Mark Antony in Egypt.
31 BC Octavian is victorious at the battle of Actium. Cleopatra and Antony are defeated.
30-28 BC Roman conquest of Egypt under Octavian; suicides of Cleopatra and Antony.
29 BC Romans invade Kush and ambush the Kandake (Candace) Amanirena. Her body guard defeats the Roman legions and Kushites sack southern Egypt and set fire to Thebes.
28 BC Cornelius Gallus, Roman prefect, meets Kushite envoys at Philae temple to have peace negotiations for southern Egypt.
27 BC-14 AD Reign of Roman Caesar Augustus.
27 BC Roman geographer/historian Strabo visits Aswan. Earthquake in Egypt damages the "Colossi of Memnon".
25 BCE Octavian Augustus gives Mauretania (in addition to Numidia to which he had been restored in 31BC) to Juba II as a client kingdom. Juba's kingdom includes modern Morocco and Mauretania. [Juba II married Cleopatra-Selene, daughter of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony. Juba and Cleopatra-Selene's son Ptolemy was murdered by his cousin Caligula emperor of Rome. Their grand son Drusilla II married Agrippa I of Judah].
24 BCE Kush attacks Roman Egypt, attacking Elephantine and Philae at Aswan. Probable time that the statue of Augustus was seized. A bronze head of Augustus found at Meroë as booty from this raid.
23 BC Augustus counterattacks with his forces led by Petronius who seized Premnis in Kush.
ca. 22-21 BC Kushites counterattack at Qasr Ibrim, but are driven back.
22-19 BCE Augustus has temple built at Dendera on the Nile
21-20 BCE Kushites obtain reinforcements from central Africa and to avoid defeat Roman Legions at Premnis sue for peace. The Kushites send envoys for negotiations at Samos Island and conclude a peace treaty between Romans and Kushites. Kushite tribute is suspended and a permanent ambassadorial position is established between Meroë and Roman Egypt. Romans withdraw to Maharraka, which establishes Roman control only for the Dodekaschoenos (Lower Nubia). Augustus Caesar establishes standing army as result of strain of war with Cush.
20-4 BCE Reigns of Meroitic Qore Natakamani and Kandake Amanitore. Third Augustan Legion in Numidia forments rebellion against Kushite rule.
19 BCE The Romans buy alliance of Garamantes (resident in what is now Chad and Libya) and establish base at the lake Chad, connected to Mediterrenean by a route through the desert connected by Oases.
4-0 BCE The Garamantes to the west of the Nile, and the Beja (Blemmys) troops in Kush, as well as several other communities revolt (prompted by Rome) against ruling Kushite Dynasty. Meroe is captured by the Beja troops in the mutiny. Massive political unrest in Kushite empire, massive waves of migrations across Africa. The Beja dynasty takes over the massive Kushite empire (including Madagascar and the Comoros Islands and Central Africa). Southeast Asian crops (rice, yams, sugar cane, eggplant, bananas, and mangos) arrive in East Africa. Jesus Christ and his family live in Egypt.
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